Pregnancy: Millions of sperm are deposited in the vagina during intercourse, but only 50 to 100 of these end up in the ovum. Pregnancy usually occurs on the outer 1/3 of the fallopian tube and cell division begins immediately. The morula (cell mass) enters the uterus 3-4 days later. A few days later, the blastocyst (8-16 cells) is ready for implantation into the implant.
Some of these cells become part of the fetus of the placenta, while others become embryos. The Doppler ultrasound device can detect the baby’s heart sounds around 8 to 10 weeks, and the heart sounds can be heard with a regular stethoscope for 18 to 20 weeks.
Early signs of pregnancy and the reason most women turn to a doctor is when they have missed a period. Breast enlargement and tenderness, nausea and occasional vomiting may also be seen. Blood or urine tests are done to confirm the pregnancy. There are many different urine pregnancy tests available without a prescription at local pharmacies.
By convention, pregnancy usually begins on the first day of the last menstrual cycle. Therefore, she is generally considered to be six weeks pregnant two weeks after the absence of the period. Pregnancies are maintained for 266 days (38 weeks) after conception or for 280 days from the last menstrual cycle (40 weeks). To calculate the “due dates”, we deduct 3 months from the first day of the last menstrual cycle and add 7 days.
This is an approximate calculation and only about 10% of all babies are born on the exact due date. An infant is considered full-time if the expected due date arrives at +/- two weeks or at 36-42 weeks of gestation.
Pregnancy causes changes in all systems of the body. However, these changes are usually approx. They return to the pre-pregnancy state 6 months after the baby is born. One of the most common and unpleasant changes takes place in the kidneys. Hormones, especially progesterone, which the body produces during pregnancy, dilate the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), allowing larger amounts of urine to enter the bladder in less time. This combination of more urine and the pressure of the baby on the bladder often results in the need to urinate.
Another commonly observed change occurs in the stomach. As the uterus grows, it compresses the stomach, slowing the rate of gastric emptying. The hormones also relax the latch at the bottom of the esophagus, which holds food in the stomach. The combined result of both changes is that laughter and heartburn can occur.
Melasma, the “pregnancy mask,” patch refers to a pigmented area on the forehead and sides of the face. This is probably due to the fact that the placenta produces a hormone that stimulates melanocytes. The mask usually fades after pregnancy.
During pregnancy, the mother may experience nausea and vomiting, especially during the first trimester. No medicine has been approved for this. If “morning sickness” occurs, your doctor may recommend treatment. Frequent and small amounts of eating and drinking can help alleviate the problem.
There are many other symptoms. Questions should be directed to a doctor and this is the best source of information about changes in the body.
Work and transport
A common initial sign of childbirth is back pain or lower abdominal contractions, at regular intervals. False alarms are not uncommon, but true childbirth, which contracts every 2-5 minutes, very often occurs suddenly. Delivery will then take place in less than 24 hours. Every mother is different in how fast her birth progresses. Generally, working with your first child will take longer.
The cervix is usually solid, not pregnant and during most pregnancies. Towards the end of pregnancy, however, the cervix softens and dilates. Once childbirth begins, uterine contractions expand the cervix more, and this dilation sends signals to the brain to increase the release of oxytocin.
Increased oxytocin affects the uterus to increase the strength of contractions and cause the formation of prostaglandins in the uterine mucosa and placenta. Prostaglandins further increase uterine contractions. These mechanisms help the baby give birth and empty the placenta. Childbirth is also aided by voluntary contractions of the spinal reflexes and abdominal muscles.
Your doctor will usually explain what to expect during and after childbirth. It is often helpful to attend maternity leave.
Lactation as birth control
In some women, care prevents the menstrual cycle from continuing after breastfeeding. Prolactin prevents the formation of new follicles in the ovaries by inhibiting the release of the hypothalamic-releasing factor, which stimulates the release of LH and FSH. Therefore, care, while not necessarily safe, also provides contraceptive measures in addition to providing excellent nutrition and immune protection for babies.
Only 5-10% of women become pregnant again during breastfeeding. In addition, almost 50% of the cycles are anovulatory (not releasing eggs) in the first six months after the return of the cycle.
Hormones and cycle
Females have four main hormones in the menstrual cycle: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen (estradiol), and progesterone. FSH and LH are protein hormones produced by cells in the pituitary gland in response to small peptide hormones (hypothalamic-releasing factors) from the hypothalamus.
These pituitary hormones travel in the blood to the ovaries, where they stimulate the development of one or more eggs, each within the follicle. The follicle is made up of an ovum surrounded by cells that are responsible for the growth and maintenance of the ovum. As the cycle advances, one follicle becomes predominant and all other relapses.
Estrogen, and to a lesser extent progesterone, is a steroid hormone produced by developing follicular cells. Estrogen increases the thickness of the endometrium and the vascular system (i.e., the blood supply).
After ovulation (at the center of the cycle), LH causes the same follicular cells to switch to progesterone production. Due to progesterone, the endometrial lining becomes secretory and nourishing before estimating the implantation of the fertilized egg. These four hormones are in constant balance, which shifts during progress during the menstrual cycle. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days, however, only a very small percentage of cycles are exactly 28 days, with most cycles being 25-36 days.
The menstrual cycle can be divided into three stages: follicular, ovulatory, and luteal. The follicular phase begins on the first day of menstruation (menstrual flow) and lasts for approx. It continues until day 13 or 14 when ovulation occurs. In the follicular phase, FSH and LH increase slowly, preparing for LH surge (very high levels of LH) during ovulation. FSH encourages the development of follicles in the ovaries.
Estrogen and progesterone are relatively low at this time, but begin to rise slowly towards the end of this phase.
LH in the ovulation stage (around day 14) and estrogen peaks increase simultaneously. These peaks induce ovulation. The ovum lives about 72 hours after ovulation, but only for about It can be fertilized for 36 hours. Immediately before ovulation, progesterone levels rise rapidly. Changes in the cervical mucosa accompany ovulation.
The amount of mucus will increase and become clean and thin. This facilitates conception by facilitating the passage of sperm through the cervical canal. Sperm can live in the female regenerative system for as long as 72 hours. Therefore, during the 28-day cycle, the fertile period is only about 4-5 days.
After the egg is released, the rest of the follicle remains intact in the ovary and produces estrogen and progesterone. This is known as the corpus luteum (consequently the luteal stage). The corpus luteum stays flawless for the rest of the cycle. Breast swelling, tenderness, and pain are likely to result from the effects of progesterone on breast tissue in some people.
Immediately after ovulation, the luteal phase begins and progesterone levels are very high at this stage – progesterone is important at this stage because if the egg is fertilized and implanted in the uterus, the progesterone in the uterus keeps the pregnancy intact. The continued health of the corpus luteum (progesterone secretion) is ensured by the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) from the implanted embryo until the placenta develops and is able to take it over. Detection of hCG in urine is the basis for laboratory and home pregnancy tests.
Once fertilized and implanted, the corpus luteum is stimulated by hCG to continue producing estrogen and progesterone to maintain pregnancy. This is important because the corpus luteum dies 14 to 22 days after ovulation if there is no fertilization and implantation. Because there is no progesterone to stay intact, the uterine mucosa (endometrium) then detaches, resulting in a monthly menstrual flow that is usually about It lasts for 5 days. A variety of women’s products are available to help women’s menstruation, including absorption pads and tampons, deodorants, and vaginal cleansers.
In the case of “unwanted pregnancies,” women should consider providing an infant adoption service with a family looking to feed a new family. With this, an individual’s “problem” can become a blessing to another couple.