Causes of high blood pressure
High blood pressure or hypertension is usually a lifelong disease that causes very few symptoms until it develops. Diagnosis and evaluation consist of measuring lying, sitting and standing blood pressure. Repeated, measurements of elevated blood pressure indicate hypertension.
Levels considered hypertension depend on age. Cross-border high blood pressure occurs in adults when blood pressure is consistently measured between 140/90 and 160/95. Diastolic pressure of 95-104 is considered to be mild hypertension, whereas moderate hypertension of 105-114 and severe hypertension at 115 or higher. Hypertension most often occurs in the form of mixed systolic and diastolic hypertension.
The prognosis of untreated hypertension is not good. Organ damage due to damaged blood vessels in the kidneys, heart and brain leads to kidney failure, coronary heart disease and stroke. Blacks are more at risk than whites, men are more at risk than women, and postmenopausal women are more at risk than those who are still under the protection of female hormones. The positive risk factors for hypertension are family history, smoking, stress, obesity, age, diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
Hypertension is usually multifactorial. One of the causes of hypertension is often elusive. In fact, 90% of patients have no definite cause. Patients for whom no specific cause has been established are said to suffer from essential or idiopathic hypertension. Other causes, such as vascular, Cushing’s disease, primary aldosteronism or aortic contraction, are due to secondary hypertension.
Treatment regularly starts with non-pharmaceutical methods, for example, dietary sodium limitation or weight reduction. Sodium restriction in patients with mild hypertension approx. 50% effective. Patients should avoid excessive use of table salt and processed foods during cooking or during meals. Weight loss is effective in lowering blood pressure in up to 75% of overweight patients with mild to moderate hypertension.
Pharmacological interventions are usually performed in steps. Diuretics are the first class of drugs to be used with sodium restriction and thiazide diuretics are very effective in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Loop diuretics are used when the kidney is not functioning properly and spironolactone can be used in hyperaldosteronism.
Drugs that alter the sympathetic nervous system to blood pressure are often second-line treatment. Vasodilators, converting enzyme inhibitors and / or calcium channel blockers are recent and very effective treatments.
Arterial hardening or atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in more than half of all deaths in developed countries and in the United States. When it affects the coronary arteries, it is the root cause of most heart attacks and the common cause of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias.
The pathological process begins very early with a fatty streak of lipid deposited in the intima of the arteries. Modified macrophages called foam cells accumulate in the plaque region. These froth cells aggregate lipids, particularly oxidized low thickness lipoproteins. When the injury is infiltrated with a fibrous material, it protrudes into the lumen of the artery. The injury itself rarely blocks the artery, but blood clots form on top of the plaque, which closes the canal.
Chronic lesions are calcified and the elasticity of the vessel is reduced. This hardening of the arteries increases the resistance to blood flow and hence the increase in blood pressure. In theory, atherosclerosis can affect any blood vessel in the body, but most often the aorta, coronary artery, cervical and joint arteries. Ischemia or infarction of defined regions causes specific symptoms and clinical results.
Hypertension, elevated cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, age, gender (increased incidence in men up to age 75, when the risk equals), physical inactivity and a family history of heart disease are risk factors for atherosclerosis. Pharmacological interventions can be very useful in hyperlipidemic patients.
Abnormal dilation of the artery is known as aneurysm due to a congenital defect or weakness of the vessel wall. Atherosclerosis is a common cause of aortic aneurysm, while peripheral lesions are usually caused by trauma, bacterial or fungal infections. Dialysis begins with weakness of the medial layer of the artery. The risk of aneurysm is rupture, peripheral artery emboli, pressure in the surrounding tissue and obstruction of blood flow to the organs fed by the arteries. Aneurysm fracture is often fatal and depends on the person involved.
Venous thrombosis and thrombophlebitis
Venous obstruction may be permanent or transient. Blocking the trunk or a portion of the main branches leads to the widening of the vessels distant from the obstruction and can result in permanent damage to valves and vessel walls due to pressure, hypoxemia, stretching and malnutrition. Edema may be the result of damage to the peripheral blood vessels.
Blood vessels may cause thrombi to form due to inflammation or trauma to the endothelium. Venous blood stasis contributes to the formation of a blood clot or thrombus. As the thrombus grows along the axis of the bloodstream, some of it may decompose and become an embolus located at the bottom of the capillary beds, preventing the blood from flowing to the served area.
Most often, the emboli are located in the lung capillaries. When thrombosis excludes blood vessels, it can be compensated by the collateral blood vessels. If the fuse does not circulate properly, edema may occur.
Treatment includes anticoagulant treatment or surgical removal of the thrombus is large.
Inflammation of the veins, usually due to the presence of a thrombus in the legs, is called thrombophlebitis. Such inflammation can occur due to chemical damage, bacterial infection or causes of unknown origin. Thrombophlebitis in the deep veins of the legs causes pain and tenderness in the calf.
Varicosis is the enlargement of superficial veins caused by valve defects, usually in the leg or lumbar region.
More information about Varicose veins
Blood vessels are weak-walled vessels, and gravitational pressure, stasis, or increased venous pressure can lead to valve malfunctions and, consequently, are called enlarged twisted superficial vessels, known as varicosities. They can occur anywhere but are most common in the feet, where they appear as a distressing, dark blue vein just below the surface of the skin. Smaller superficial varicosities are called spider veins.
Women are most often affected, usually between the ages of 30 and 70. In the United States, 10% of men and 20% of women are affected. The valve may be defective or inherited. Age increases tend to be due to loss of elasticity of the vein wall, as well as pregnancy, illness, injury, obesity, and prolonged sitting or standing.
Due to incompetent valves, the blood returns to the lower leg, causing an increase in venous pressure that dilates the blood vessel. Symptoms include pain or difficulty in the legs, feet and ankles, swelling, ulceration of the mucous membranes of the skin and severe bleeding when injected into a vein.
Varicose veins do not heal without treatment. Treatment of varicose veins consists of resting, lifting the limb and using external support devices, such as elastic covers or support hoses. Elastic stockings are preferred over elastic bandages.
Behavioral changes can help prevent the development of the colon. When sitting, the ankle should be crossed instead of the knee. Avoiding high-heeled shoes that restrict the use of calf muscle and restrictive clothing that limit blood flow to the lumbar or calf area can help.
Persistent sitting or standing should be avoided if you take a break to lift your feet or walk, both of which facilitate blood movement and prevent valve malfunction. For pregnant women, left sleep, not back sleep, can help as it will reduce the pressure in the pelvic vessels.
Seek medical attention if the varicose veins are painful, if the swelling becomes unusable, or if bleeding or discoloration of the varicose vein occurs.
Treatments of high blood pressure
Laser therapy has a beneficial effect on the superficial varicose veins known as the arachnids. The energy of light is absorbed by the blood vessels, which can overheat and burst. The tissues become illuminated when the debris is removed by normal healing processes. If the warming effect is less intense, the blood vessels contract without bleeding. Lasers are capable of selectively treating large abnormal veins and leaving smaller veins intact.
Sclerotherapy consists of injecting small and medium-sized varicosities by injection that creates and closes scar tissue and forces blood to flow to healthier veins.
Outpatient phlebectomy involves the removal of smaller varicosities through small holes in the skin during local anesthesia. Occasionally, minimal scarring occurs.
Vein dissection involves the removal of a long vein through small incisions in outpatient care.
Endoscopic vein surgery is performed in advanced cases of vascular disease associated with foot ulcers. The surgeries insert an endoscopic camera into the varicose vein through small incisions to display and treat the defects.
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