What is leukemia type, causes, symptoms and treatment explained 2020
Leukemia or blood cancer (symptoms) is commonly found in people, who are exposed to high levels of radiation and chemicals. This disease includes the generation of the abnormal production of white blood cells.
These cells are referred to as leukemia cells. Initially, they behave normally, but gradually they begin to overpower normal white blood cells that fight infections, red blood cells that carry oxygen to body organs and the platelets that enable blood clotting. The disease may be acute or chronic and may affect lymphoid cells or myeloid cells.
Types of Leukemia
It has a wide spectrum of its general nature. It is continued to be classified and subdivided into more specific types. The types of leukemia are further classified into the overproduction rate of abnormal cells in the bone marrow and secondly, the type of cells the leukemia cells target.
Blood cancer mainly affects the bone marrow where the blood cells are generated. The abnormal increase in white blood cells is responsible for the emergence of leukemia cells. It moreover generates from the bone marrow to the bloodstream and circulatory system.
When the leukemia cells disperse, he other blood cells, which are the red blood cells and platelets are clogged to perform their normal functions, thus allowing the white blood cells to outrageously and abnormally activate and reproduce to harm the whole body system.
Two Main Types of Leukemia
The two main types are acute and chronic leukemia. Acute is a leukemia type that occurs or onsets suddenly with or without known causes. The production of affecting factors grows on a fast- pacing basis.
The onset of acute leukemia is brought about by the speedy production of immature blood cells and multiplying further into more dangerous leukemia cells. Chronic leukemia on the other hand appears gradually.
The illness worsens on a long- term basis, thus characterized by the onset of more matured cells than that of acute leukemia. However, these cells are not capable of fighting infections, though they can exhibit some of their functions as compared to the blood cells of acute leukemia.
Lymphocytic and Myelogenous Leukemia
Classifying leukemia further, lymphocytic and myelogenous leukemia is also regarded as main types. Lymphocytic leukemia target solely the white blood cells. Lymphocytic is derived from lymphocytes which are active in the production of leukemia cells.
On the other hand, myelogenous leukemia affects other discrete types of blood cells which are called the granulocytes or monocytes. Monocytes function to protect the body from infection.
The Four Types Of Leukemia
The four main types were modified to create more specific patterns and distinctions in ruling out leukemia. The four types include leukemia type ALL (Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia), leukemia type AML (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia), leukemia type CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia) and leukemia type CML (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia.)
These four types of more specific distinctions in leukemia are fused with the characteristics of their root types. Blast cells are called the immature cells that often contribute to the improper accumulation and function of all types of blood cells in the bone marrow.
Whatever types of leukemia present in a person, the primary cause is the so-called blasts or lymphoblasts. The duration of onset and peak of the types of leukemia may differ depending on the gravity of the WBC production.
Leukemia Type T
There is also a special type of leukemia that affects other blood cells apart from the major blood cells. There is a T-cell virus that primarily attacks the T-cells that are produced by the leukocytes or white blood cells. Leukemia type T is characterized by a viral transmission often acquired through the sharing of needles, blood transfusion and sexual intercourse.
Causes of Leukemia
The Nature of Leukemia and Blood Cells
One of the top lethal diseases in the world today is Cancer. Cancer is known to be an undefeated illness, with no known specific medication or treatment to combat it. Moreover, cancer attacks almost all organs of the body, resulting in the system’s deterioration.
One of the most common types of cancer is blood cancer. Leukemia is a carcinoma of the blood that is characterized by the overproduction of white blood cells in the circulatory system. The blood is composed of three components: white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets.
Formation Of Blood Cells
These three components of the blood accumulated in the bone marrow, a soft hollow tissue found at the center of major bones in the body. The three blood cells form from being stem cells or immature cells.
Normal growth of blood cells takes place in the bone marrow, whereas, the production of leukemia cells occurs when each of their growth cycles goes abnormally wrong. A major leukemia cause is the overproduction of the leukocytes, which is way too weighty than what the other blood cells produce.
The White Blood Cells
The white blood cells or leukocytes function as “antibodies” which help the system fight infections and protect it further from foreign invasions such as bacteria and viruses. Erythrocytes or red blood cells are equally important in carrying oxygen in the bloodstream, thus being distributed in all parts of the body. Platelets function for blood clotting, which is also an important process in the proper functioning of the circulatory system.
Main Causes Of Leukemia
Its causes may vary from different sources, may it be known or idiopathic in nature. As stated above, the main cause of leukemia is the abnormal production of white blood cells, which overshadows the performance of other blood cells.
When white blood cells overflow and outshine the balance of the proper functioning of the circulatory system, leukemia cells are produced. At the onset of those leukemia cells, direct diagnosis may be unidentifiable.
However, as the number of leukemia cells increase in number, signs and manifestations start to show up. The causes of leukemia may also include viral infection, hereditary factors, the environment and immune system deficiencies.
Acute and Lymphocytic Leukemia
There are two main types of leukemia that include acute and chronic leukemia. Acute leukemia causes may include acquired damage of the DNA from other sources but not genetically inherited. The possible cause of acute leukemia is the exposure to carcinogens or substances that trigger the overproduction of white blood cells.
Constant exposure to benzene was ruled out to be one of the main causes. However, as studies for leukemia further flourished, there are more types of leukemia that are distinctive in their own clinical manifestations. One of these distinctions is between lymphocytic and myelogenous types of leukemia.
Lymphocytic leukemia causes include exposure to radiation, carcinogens, existing chronic leukemia or other blood diseases that weakened the immune system. Lymphocytic leukemia cells target the lymphocytes or white blood cells alone, while myelogenous types are fastened by the overproduction of white blood cells, thus affecting the bone marrows.
Leukemia is a cancerous condition that causes an unregulated abnormal formation of white blood cells in the blood. Leukemia cells crowd out the normal blood cells making it difficult for the blood to work properly. It originates in the bone marrow and spreads to the blood. Radiation exposure and smoking are causes of leukemia. It has no known preventions.
Symptoms of leukemia
Symptoms of leukemia can be classified as early leukemia symptoms that show up with the onset of the disease and symptoms of feline leukemia which are also found in cats affected by this disease.
Bone and Joint Pain
The pain arises because the bone marrow and joint marrow becomes overcrowded with cancerous leukemia cells.
In a person with leukemia chemicals that direct the brain to raise body temperature to fight infections are released excessively causing recurring fevers.
Although leukemia causes excessive proliferation of white blood cells, these leukemia cells are abnormal and are hence unable to fight diseases like normal white blood cells do. This adversely affects the patient’s immunity system. The patient catches infections frequently and experiences recurring bouts of running nose, and cough, bacterial and viral infections.
Symptoms of Feline leukemia
It is a condition where there is a deficiency of red blood cells and platelets to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. Anemia causes paleness, weakness and fatigue. People with anemia bruise and bleed easily too. Abnormal bleeding can manifest as bleeding gums, nose bleeding and red spots on the skin which are caused when small blood vessels below the skin bleed.
Swollen Lymph Nodes
Lymph nodes that perform the function of filtering blood are located in the armpits, chest, groin and neck. They swell in leukemia patients because leukemia cells usually collect at these places. MRI and CT scans are used to confirm swellings even when they can be felt externally.
It refers to difficult breathing. It happens when the patient suffers from an acute form of lymphocytic leukemia. The leukemia cells collect around the thymus gland in the center of the chest causing pain while breathing.
When leukemia cells accumulate in the spleen, liver and kidney these organs become swollen. This leads to abdominal pain. The patient feels full after eating small quantities of food. He faces an appetite loss and consequently suffers the unexplained loss of weight. Weight loss is also caused by certain chemicals released by leukemia cells and as a result of a frequent attack of infections.
Other leukemia symptoms
Acute Leukemia affects the brain and spinal cord which are part of the central nervous system. This causes headaches, nausea, giddiness, lack of control over muscles, seizures and weakness in arms and legs.
Leukemia may also be found in the testicles, eyes, kidneys, skin, digestive tract, lungs and other body parts.
As soon as leukemia signs symptoms become evident it is necessary to seek medical attention promptly. The symptoms of Chronic leukemia especially is vague in the beginning. They become evident only after many years. Diagnosis and treatment at an early stage of leukemia can ensure a complete cure for the disease.
Cancer treatments may have existed but the record of successful administration is still under cancer death rates. Clinical treatments for cancer often expend success during the early stages of the disease and the nature of cancer cell onset.
Probably, one of the most common types of cancer is blood cancer or leukemia. Leukemia treatments may also subdue as for the general cancer treatments. Leukemia may start its onset on an acute or chronic basis.
Acute leukemia may spring up suddenly and gets worse at a faster rate. In chronic leukemia, the cells grow more maturely than the blood cells in acute leukemia. However, the blood cells worsening chronically also are incapable of producing antibodies that could really protect the body from infections.
Variations in Treatments
Leukemia treatments may or may not vary depending on what type of leukemia a patient has. The patient might have acute or chronic, myelogenous or lymphocytic leukemias, which each exhibit different signs and symptoms. In some aspects, they may also differ in methods of treatment.
Acute and Chronic Treatments
Acute and chronic leukemia treatments may vary depending on the condition of the patient. He will be prior subjected to several tests if he is eligible or not to undergo such treatments:
- Chemotherapy is the most common form of cancer treatment. This is a radiation- bases treatment used to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is also accompanied by the induction of drugs, specifically anti-cancer drugs.
- Catheterization is the process wherein a surgeon places tubing, creating a pathway of venous drugs from the collar bone to the chest region. This catheter is also used to access blood samples during transfusions and induction of anti-cancer drugs.
- Bone marrow transplant is the surgical treatment that functions to replace the damaged bone marrow through the outburst of white blood cells. The patient can use his autologous cells which are extracted from his own bones or better yet, the patient can use bone marrow from another person’s bones depending on matching and screening procedure results.
Stem Cell Transplantation
These are the three general treatments of leukemia. In some cases stem cell transplantation is used to modify chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantations. The surgeons use high doses of radiation therapy in this case.
Success of Treatment Administration
Oncologists or specialists for cancer often combine these procedures to ensure the elimination of cancer cells in the system. Some operations might be successful and some might only be make-believe. But these treatments have proven successful prevention of immature blood cell growths and abnormal performance of white blood cells.
However, these treatments can be more successful with the patient’s cooperation. Moreover, prevention is better than cure. The risk factors involved in the onset of leukemia are a must to be known aware by the public.
Awareness of agents that can cause leukemia must be properly researched. Immediately consult a professional or your oncologist if you feel symptoms from the above list. Always make sure that you attend your monthly physical check-up to ensure a healthy body.